Thursday, August 27, 2009

Organizing Sterling Silver Findings

I really can't say enough about the importance of organizing one's supplies, like sterling silver findings. There are two different categories of organization: physical organization, and informational organization. And I'd like to touch on both and tell you a bit from personal experience, and invite you to send me your thoughts, personal solutions that you'd like to share with others, and tips on how to improve our system at Stones and Findings . Perhaps I'll write an update on our progress and some of your comments later on.

Sterling Silver Findings - Physical Organization

Physical organization mantra: a place for everything, and everything in its place . This is especially tricky with you have hundreds of different sterling silver findings, and some as small as 2mm. I'm not tidy by nature, but I will make the effort and when it takes me more than 3 minutes to find something on my desk, I take it as a higher sign that I need to do some cleaning. The worst organizer I met was a jewellery designer I had hired fresh from OCA (the prestigious Ontario College of Art). On her first full day of design work after orientation, she took jewellery findings out of bins and spread them all out on the large table. As I walked past many times throughout that day, I become increasingly alarmed by the build up of beads and sterling silver findings. When it came time for cleanup, company rule of 30 minutes before leaving for home, she had built up at least 2 litres in volume of tiny beads and pearls , all completely mixed. She asked if it was okay to leave it. The answer was a curt no, of course. She told me that one of her professors at the College was like this and that was how he functioned. She was young and so, I thought I'd do her the favour of not softening the edges of truth. I looked at her work for the day and I told her that she should try to emulate the professor's creative artistry and not just the mess. It wasn't long before I had to let her go. Jewellery really wasn't her forte, and her messiness was dragging everyone else down. Artistic talent is never a valid excuse for sloppy inefficiency.

On the other end of the mess meter was my experience on a Royal Caribbean cruise ship last Christmas. Occupancy was at its maximum, however, I never felt crowded, except in our cabin, with my kids' toys and clothes strewn everywhere. On the ship, every single wall panel had shallow shelving behind it, it seemed. These places held things like extra tea bags to napkins. Everything had a built-in place for it and the staff did a great job putting things back. I was really inspired and realized we have a long way to go and there are many exciting opportunities for improvement. Just remember that the time spent searching for things is money.

There are many simple things you can do to improve physical organization of your sterling silver components or jewellery business:

- For those designing with fewer sterling silver components , and jewellery beads or with lower budget, simple tackle boxes and food jars can go a long way. Food jars are bulky and you lose some room because they're round, but it's better than nothing and they usually come free. Canadian Tire has the best selection of tackle or sewing kit boxes

- Use Avery labels to label everything, including cost and supplier, if you don't mind others knowing

- If you're taking things out of their places to design, pour them out onto little saucers instead of building up a massive pool

- We've since made many strides in improving the organization of sterling silver findings in our shelves, with proper labelling and location. More can be done and I invite you to let us know how.

Feel free to click here and read on about Informational Organization of Sterling Silver Findings and Jewellery Supplies .

Designing with Sardonyx

In the Ancient Roman Empire, sardonyx was an especially treasured gemstone, and was often used by the elite for making wax seals. Its smooth texture didn't stick to the wax, so it was a natural fit in that role. Romans also used its wonderful visual personality for ornament and high fashion: the esteemed general Publius Cornelius Scipio was reported to frequently sport large quantities of the stone.

With such an eye-catching visual personality, it's easy to see why. Sardonyx is characterized by the brilliant deep red bands that distinguish it from normal black onyx. Both are members of the chalcedony family. Sardonyx is thought to help its wearer cultivate positive energies, while dispelling other negative or unwanted energies.

Click here to browse Sardonyx at Stones and Findings

Designing with Sunstone

Sunstone Pendant Coin Donut

Sunstone, known to the scientific community as aventurine feldspar, is famous for its spangled golden brilliance. It is the official state gemstone of Oregon, where sites of sunstone abundance have actually been opened to the public. Even though Oregon residents and commercial enterprises have harvested countless tonnes of the gem, it still remains in wealthy abundance. If you like, you can go hunt for your own sunstone finds there.

Long, long before sunstone deposits were discovered in the USA, the mineral was of indispensable aid to Vikings who, surprisingly, used it for navigation. This is due to an amazing natural property of sunstone known as polarization; sunstone's metallic inclusions reflect light in a stunning blaze of colour that changes depending on what angle the stone is facing in relation to the source of light. So on foggy or overcast days when the sun was not directly visible, those Nordic sailors of old simply pulled out their handy piece of sunstone and rotated it until they saw the tell-tale gleam. From this they could gather their bearings and sail in an informed trajectory.

Tested navigational benefits and awe-inspiring beauty aside, sunstone has been thought to aid digestion, help with rheumatism, and increase strength and vitality.

Click here to browse Sunstone at Stones and Findings

Designing with Glass

designing with glass beads

In the modern world, glass has an interesting multiple personality, and is well known and used in almost all spheres of life, from art and architecture to optics and laboratory research. Naturally occurring in a pale green-blue, glassmakers manufacture colored glass by introducing mineral oxides and metallic compounds to the chemical makeup.

In the ancient world, the Phoenicians were the earliest to make use of found glass, and their discovery of it has been dated as far back as 5000 BC. The Egyptians would be the first real pioneers in glass manufacturing and by 1500 BC had developed a method of shaping it known as 'core forming'. Compressed sand would be dipped into molten glass, rolled to coat the surface, and removed. The object would then be shaped while still hot, and when sufficiently cooled the sand would be drained. For all our drinking bottles and other glass containers in widespread use today, we have the Ancient Egyptians to thank! From core-formed glass, Egyptians went further in 500 BC to invent 'cast' glass, which is the process of pouring molten glass into a shaping receptacle that would not adhere to the glass' surface.

Glass blowing would later be developed in the Mediterranean at the turn of the millennium, and in the Byzantium kingdom they would achieve the means to enamel, stain, and gild glass, thus exponentially expanding the medium's creative possibilities. The Roman Empire would be the first civilization to cultivate glass working for architectural purposes (windows), and through their extensive network of trade routes facilitated the transportation of glass and glass making techniques throughout Eurasia and North Africa. This, in turn, set in motion an explosion of glass enthusiasts and artisans.

With the Industrial Revolution of the 19th century, mechanized glass manufacture was introduced, establishing the means of large-scale commercial glass production that have, since then, only been refined. To summarize the long history of one of mankind's most cherished materials, it can be said that modern day glass working can be traced back to a rich and illustrious lineage of innovative artisans. While improvements and innovations still continue to grow the glass industry, the methods of shaping, colouring, and treating glass have remained fundamentally the same. Nevertheless, the fresh minds of the design world will continue to use glass and galss beads in remarkably innovative ways, and the cutting edge of modern technology will inevitably produce new breakthroughs in the science of glass, contributing further to its wonderfully rich and time-honoured tradition.

Click here to browse Glass at Stones and Findings

Designing with Moonstone

Moonstone Round 5x5

Possessing the unearthly radiance of the moon, this stone is known worldwide as an absolute delight. It is especially famous for a distinctive and uncanny three-dimensional shimmering play of light called 'adularescence'. This process is scientifically explained by the reflection of light off of internal mineral inclusions, but anyone who has seen the trademark brilliance of moonstone's glimmering lustre knows that all words and explanations fall short of.

Still, to be impacted by the experience of moonstone's magic gleam is to gain some understanding of the rich mystique surrounding the gem. In classical Indian folklore, moonstone was thought to bring its bearer future premonitions and lucid dreams. The ancient Romans theorized that moonstone was actually made out of frozen moonlight.

Moonstone is frequently cut en cabochon to showcase its lighting effects, and requires a skilled lapidary to do the job properly. It is a relatively soft stone, so care should be taken when wearing and handling. Moonstone is believed to strengthen intuition, cultivate insight, aid fertility, nurture loving kindness, and balance yin and yang forces.

Click here to browse Moonstone at Stones and Findings

Friday, August 14, 2009

What is Crystal?

Derived from the Greek word krystallos, which has been translated as 'clear ice,' crystal refers to some of the most impressive and bizarre mineral outgrowths found in nature. Seeking to emulate these wonderfully strange and beautiful forms, man has successfully produced glass crystal since George Ravenscroft established his innovative glasshouse in London, England, in 1673. Mixing lead oxide with molten glass during the heating process, Ravenscroft was able to create a glass of unprecedented sparkle and consistency.

The more lead oxide that is added to the glass, the more refractive and visually stunning the finished product will be. However, this comes at the cost of dramatically increased rigidity, and the crystal therefore becomes much harder to blow. At this stage, crystal is usually manufactured by an incredibly skilled and coordinated team of glass blowers- from 4 to 7 people working in synchronized fashion- and takes a tremendous amount of physical strength, breath control and stamina.

After the initial shaping of the crystal object or bead, it is soaked in an acidic bath that effectively removes any imperfections from the exterior. The crystal then enters the cutting phase. Because the crystal is so amazingly hard, diamond-tipped wheels are required to cut flat facets into the surface. For shallow engraving and/or imagery, small, slow-moving copper wheels are used in a procedure that can take hours to perfect the crystal bead or object surface.

No two crystals are identical, and through a long, multi-stage process, the final product is accomplished by an experienced and creative team whose craft is still being refined after centuries of development.

Click here to browse Crystals at Stones and Findings

What is Cubic Zirconia (CZ)?

Cubic zirconia is most commonly thought of as a diamond substitute, and rightfully so. What shouldn't be overlooked, however, is the fascinating history and set of distinct qualities that make cubic zirconia wonderfully notable and unique all on its own

As a synthetic substitute, cubic zirconia has somewhat the same effect as gold vermeil, sterling silver, and cultured pearls: it allows the everyday jewellery enthusiast to enjoy the aesthetic marvels of a truly precious substance (diamonds, in this case) without paying an arm and a leg. To anyone without a professionally trained eye, diamonds and cubic zirconia beads are virtually indistinguishable.

As a naturally occurring phenomenon, zirconium oxide was discovered by German mineralogists in 1937. Many people don't know that it occurs naturally at all, but it certainly does, albeit in incredibly scarce quantities. Natural cubic zirconia is so rare, in fact, that upon first discovery it seemed insignificant- there simply wasn't enough to make use of.

The discovery became immensely significant, however, in 1973, when Soviet scientists at the Lebedev Physical Institute in Moscow finally perfected synthesizing the substance. Three years later their discovery was published, and by 1980 cubic zirconia was in commercial production on a massive scale. The explosively fast rise of cubic zirconia in world attention and market prominence simply goes to show how hungry the world was for a good man-made diamond substitute.

Diamonds, of course, are much harder in density, but cubic zirconia is still incredibly hard by gemstone standards (8.5 on the Mohs scale, where most gemstones are around 5-6) and therefore immensely durable and basically scratchproof. Another little recognized fact is that since cubic zirconia is synthetically produced, it is almost totally flawless in terms of surface consistency and irregularities, where diamonds are often marked by natural discolorations and other imperfections.

Cubic zirconia is often dyed as well, which is something that only happens as 'enhancement' of natural colour with diamonds. Presumably, the relatively low cost of cubic zirconia encourages more liberal experimentation with things like colour and cut. Far from being a just a cheap diamond copy, cubic zirconia is a gemstone medium in its own right.

Click here to browse Cubic Zirconia at Stones and Findings

Freshwater vs. Saltwater Pearls

Dear Professor Pearl,

I still don’t quite get it… What are the differences between saltwater and freshwater pearls?

Hamilton, Ontario

Great question, Linda! Freshwater and saltwater pearls definitely have their differences. However, all pearls are made in the same way. When a small piece of sand or other debris gets stuck inside the mollusk’s shell, it is slowly coated by layer after layer of nacre, also known as mother of pearl. Eventually, the intruding particle is ejected back into the water as a finished, natural pearl. Since this process can take as long as several years, culturing pearls in farms was developed by Japanese scientists in the early 20th century. The outside of a cultured pearl is still made entirely of nacre- which gives it the natural pearls’ trademark iridescent lustre- but the inside is actually a core of other organic materials placed inside the shellfish to produce pearls in 6 months or less. What’s more is that cultured pearls are very hard to distinguish from totally natural ones, even with the help of scientific instruments. These days, natural pearls are rare and difficult to retrieve, so the vast majority of both saltwater and freshwater pearls are cultured in farms.

Saltwater pearls come from oysters that reside in, you guessed it, oceans and seas. They are usually more round than freshwater pearls, which are often a potato-like shape. Different colours are common among saltwater pearls depending on where they come from. Soft pink is the natural hue, but steely grey and purple pearls are also found in Tahitian waters, and Australian seas are known for light grey, white, and slightly golden pearls. Pearls from the South Seas can also get very big, but are lacking in the surface quality and market value of, say, the Japanese Akoya pearl. It can generally be said that saltwater pearls are more expensive than freshwater pearls because they are rarer and harder to farm; storms in open water and oyster diseases are the culprits of many a lost pearl, and saltwater pearl operations are costly at the best of times.

Freshwater pearls come from mussels that live in rivers, streams, and lakes. They are available in a wider variety of colours like white, cream, pink, lilac, and peach, but are also commonly dyed to produce a virtually limitless palette. Again, freshwater pearls aren’t usually as round as saltwater pearls, but they are still judged on the same criteria whether cultured or all-natural: roundness, surface quality, and size.

In summary, saltwater pearls are more expensive because of scarcity and cultivation issues, but freshwater pearls are often indistinguishable anyway. It has been found that specialists cannot, even with the aid of x-rays & ultrasound equipment, tell the difference between a freshwater and a saltwater pearl.

Hope that answers your question, Linda! Thanks for writing.
~Professor Pearl

Write to Professor Pearl with any questions you have about gemstones, precious metals, jewellery making techniques, or the accessory industry:


Discovered in 1803 by English chemist William Hyde Wollaston, Rhodium was named by its finder after the Greek word rhodon, meaning 'rose.' It is mainly found in South Africa and the Ural mountain range. Rhodium is the world's de facto #1 most expensive precious metal, and discovered in such scarce quantity that the planet sees only 3 tonnes of annual production. Amidst market fluctuations Rhodium steadily maintains a price roughly 500 times that of silver and 5 times that of platinum. In 1979, Paul McCartney's success as the best-selling songwriter of all time was recognized by the Guinness Book of World Records with the presentation of none other than a rhodium-plated record, thus demonstrating the great cultural superiority of rhodium to all other precious metals up to and including platinum.

With an unmatchable character, it's easy to see why it's so sought after: rhodium will not tarnish or oxidize when exposed to normal levels of heat and light, and it is even immune to common corrosive substances like chlorine and fluorine that threaten other precious metals. It is also wonderfully reflective, and is frequently used as a component in optical instruments in the medical field. For all of these reasons, on top of its amazing structural rigidity, Rhodium is truly the 'rose' of the precious metal family. In the jewelry world it is commonly electroplated onto gold, copper, or silver objects to imbue them with some of its fantastic properties. The result of rhodium plated copper, for example, is a piece that combines all the durability and brilliance of pure rhodium with the common availability and low price of copper. This kind of electroplating in chains and findings puts the world's most expensive precious metal in the hands of up-and-coming designers, and around the necks and wrists of all. As an added bonus, Rhodium is hypoallergenic, and as plating it provides a protective layer for anyone sensitive to gold, nickel, or silver.

Click here to browse Rodium Plated Silver Chains at Stones and Findings

Click here to browse Rodium Plated Silver Findings at Stones and Findings

Attaching the Leather Bead Tip

If you can perform the Crimp, you can fix a bead tip to a leather necklace, bracelet, or anklet. Our example uses a Thin Round Leather Strand and two different kinds of Sterling Silver Leather Bead Tips, but it doesn't really matter as long as the leather fits snugly into the opening of the bead tip. You will also need some chain nose pliers.

Attaching the Leather Bead Tip

In the first example below, the leather is inserted into the bead tip as far as it will go. Since the bead tip is round to begin with, all you need to do is perform a crimp to flatten it out. Use the midsection of the pliers teeth to get more leverage in crushing the metal around the leather.

In the second example, the bead tip is slightly more challenging to attach because it is neither round nor closed to begin with. Slide the leather into the slot of the bead tip, and hold it there with your free hand. Crimp the bead tip slightly with the nose of your pliers to hold it onto the leather, allowing you to remove your supporting hand. Then, when you've accomplished all that you can with the tip of the pliers, it's time to crimp the bead tip to the point where both sides of the opening close in to the centre. Do this slowly and in stages. When crimping from one angle is too difficult, switch to another side, and eventually what started as a square slot turns into something totally round. Finished!

How to Tie a Leather Knot End

Finishing a leather necklace or bracelet with a knotted end is quite simple, but it produces a rustic and natural aesthetic that can be just what your accessory calls for. Our example uses a Thin Round Leather Strand and a 5mm Soldered Ring.

Performing the Leather Knot End

Slide the leather strand through the ring, and then fold a length of it back with the rest of the leather. Don't be afraid to give yourself a generous amount of slack to work with, because you'll always be able to trim the excess. Now, making sure to keep the two side-by-side strands of leather close to each other, form a loop and slide the ring through it. Do not finish the knot immediately; take your time and edge the knot as close to the ring as possible. If you do this when the knot is still a little bit loose than you will still have room to make adjustments- once you finish the knot tightly it will be difficult to undo. Finally, when you're satisfied that the knot is neat and looks good, pull it taught to secure the ring. Finished!

Lava Beads

What are Lava Beads?

by: Paula Gheorghiade

Lava Flat Pear Bead

Lava beads refer to beads that are made from volcanic material, cut and faceted into a variety of shapes and sizes. Lava beads are very lightweight, and most tend to float since they are made of hardened magma and ash. As a result, they can only be produced in areas where volcanic material is available. Depending on the area and the mineral content of the lava, the lava beads will either be very dark in colour and close to black, reddish-brown or reddish grey. Stones and Findings carries a selection of black Lava Beads in a variety of shapes.

Designing with Lava beads is very easy and fun. Due to the dark colour of the bead, you can virtually add any other colourful bead, crystal or freshwater pearl in a combination that works for you to create stunning classic or funky summer pieces. I love to take a funky strand like the Diamond Cube Lava Beads and add some beautiful Red Coral for contrast and you’ve created a fun and versatile piece. Feel free to also add some sparkly Crystal pieces , or small sterling silver or gold filled beads for some shine.

Lava Cubed Diamond Bead

No matter what design you come up with, Lava Beads are bound to be a success due to their unique look and feel. They will complement any funky, colourful or sparkly jewellery bead. So click here to view our selection, and start designing with Lava Beads today!

Abalone Shells

What are Abalone Shells?

Abalone Dyed Blue Shell Flat Rectangle

Abalone refers to the small to medium sized sea mollusks and snails, that have low and open spiral shells. The shells of abalone are oval in shape, with an iridescent nacre lining the inside. This beautiful colour variation and shine on the inside of the Abalone shell is what makes abalone shells desireable. Abalone shells have been popular for hundreds of years, due to their beautiful iridescent colours, used and prized in religious ceremonies. Abalone shells are also desirable as adornments, decorative items in jewellery, button and inlaid furniture. Abalone shells are harvested for both food and their shells, with some countries strictly regulating this practice, to prevent illegal activities. Some countries that harvest abalone shells include Africa, Australia, South America and the Orient.

Abalone Dyed Purple Flat Pear

Abalone shells are very popular in New Zealand and Australia especially in jewellery designs. The beautiful natural iridescent blue and green colour provides a great focus to any jewellery design, whether it is an earring, necklace or bracelet. The blue and green iridescent colour of Abalone shells is sometimes dyed to create an even more stunning effect. This dyeing process, if it is high quality, should set the colour within the shell so that it will not transfer onto any other beads or articles of clothing.

The natural abalone shell is becoming increasingly popular in North America, as more and more designers are mixing this higher end shell with sterling silver chains, sterling silver components, gold Vermeille and gold filled components, as well as semi-precious stones. This look is worn year round, with many designers and consumers no longer reserving wearing shell jewellery during the summer months. The more colourful and dyed abalone shells tend to be more popular in the summer months, and especially when combined with cruise wear and colourful summer dresses, either in the city or on vacation.

Click here for a great selection of shells available at Stones and Findings and get inspired to design with Abalone today!

Metal Allergies -- Sterling Silver and Gold Karats

People are allergic to metals for 2 main reasons; nickel and, less often, from salts leaching out of copper. Nickel is the main concern with roughly 12% of all women and 6% of males are allergic to nickel. Furthermore, even people with no history of nickel allergies will develop them over time if their skin makes regular contact with nickel. Most metals used in jewellery making such as silver, gold, rhodium, platinum or palladium are not known to cause allergic reactions in their pure forms. However, these metals are commonly alloyed with other metals to reduce cost, to make the metal more durable or to make the metal easier to work with.

Semi-precious and fashion jewellery comes predominately in a gold or silver tone. For gold tones, it can be karat gold, gold-filled, or achieved with gold plating over a base of sterling silver- a process known as gold vermeil- or, simply brass coated with clear lacquer. Brass, even with lacquer coating, is never recommended for jewellery making because it tarnishes extremely quickly and discolours to a patina green or black and leave marks on the skin. Copper has a fairly good reputation among people with sensitive allergies, but it too can generate rashes on the skin of the wearer as a result of the salts that are gradually teased out of the metal, causing dermatitis with prolonged exposure.

While karat gold and gold-filled can be brought back to their original shine, plated metals can not, and more people tend to be allergic to plated jewellery. Plating is thin and comes off easily with wear, and also there is leaching of the base metal. For these reasons, is not recommended for better quality or hand crafted jewellery. It is most often used in imported and low-end mass market jewellery.

Since people aren't allergic to gold but rather the base metals it is alloyed with, high purity is ideal. The higher the karat, the more pure, the fewer people are allergic to it. Unfortunately a person with a strong sensitivity to nickel will find that even 18 karat gold may be totally unwearable- after all, it is still only 75% pure gold. The same holds true for gold-filled, which also has different levels of gold purity.

Silver tones in jewellery are most commonly achieved with sterling silver, nickel-plating over a base metal, or pewter with a lacquer coating. Pewter has a steel grey colour, which is not desirable for some markets. It is a popular casting metal, but it is also soft, making it a less favourable metal for findings such as earring hooks and clasps. Pewter has a remarkably clean allergy track record, and problems only arise when the metal is alloyed with, surprise surprise, nickel. Many manufacturers go out of their way to notify clientele that their pewter is nickel-free, and you shouldn't be shy about inquiring if you are ever unsure.

The same people who react to low-karat gold jewellery will almost certainly also react to cheap silver jewellery, a function of the same culprit: nickel. Silver-looking articles sold for bargain prices have been found to contain as much as 78% nickel, sometimes coated with a silver layer that unfortunately does little to protect the skin of the wearer. Even worse is nickel silver, or so-called German silver, which is 90% nickel and 10% tin. Nickel is incidentally also responsible for occasional allergic reactions to surgical grade stainless steel (8-12% nickel), which for that exact reason is rapidly being replaced by titanium for body implants and orthodontic work.

Sterling silver, finally, is also sometimes partly alloyed with nickel, but has rarely been known to cause breakouts or rashes. This is the case because sterling silver is still (by definition) 92.5% pure, with the remainder usually accounted for by copper, which in such small concentration has never been reported to cause skin maladies. In cases where nickel is used as well as copper to make up sterling silver's remaining 7.5%, the percentage is still far too low and inactive even to offend the skin of someone with strong nickel sensitivity.

When gift giving, you should always be sure how sensitive the intended recipient's skin is. When designing for resale, one should always be conscious of perceived value. Sterling silver and gold are much more popular and this value will translate into more sales. If time and effort is to be invested in a unique design and hand crafting, one should use only sterling and karat or gold-filled metals.

Reference Charts -- A Jewelry Maker's best friend :)

When working with jewelry, putting everything into inventory and organizing all the stuff you just bought online into your'll come across metric vs imperial increments, gages, weights -- god knows what.

Best thing to do is print out these reference charts and keep 'em handy.
I use them all the time so my head doesn't blow up when I receive a new shipment!


Inches Millimetres
1/32 0.79


Size in Millimetres Nearest Equivalent in Inches
5 3/16
6 1/4
7 9/32
8 5/16
9 11/32
10 3/8
11 7/16
12 15/32
13 1/2
14 9/16
15 19/32
16 10/16
18 23/32
19 3/4
20 13/16


Choker 16 Inches
Princess18 Inches
Matinee24 Inches
Opera32 Inches
Rope48 Inches


Gauge Inches


US / CanadaBritishIrishAustralian
3/4A 1/2
1 1/4B 1/2
1 1/2C
1 3/4C 1/2
2 1/4D 1/2
2 1/2E32.75
2 3/4E 1/2
3 1/4F 1/255.25
3 1/2G
3 3/4G 1/2
4 1/4H 1/27.75
4 1/2I8
4 3/4J9
5J 1/29
5 1/4K10
5 1/2K 1/210
5 3/4L11.75
6L 1/21112.75
6 1/4M12
6 1/2M 1/21314
6 3/4N
7N 1/21415.25
7 1/40
7 1/20 1/21516.5
7 3/4P
8P 1/21617.75
8 1/4Q
8 1/2Q 1/217
8 3/4R19
9R 1/218
9 1/4S20.25
9 1/2S 1/219
9 3/4T21.5
10T 1/220
10 1/4U21
10 1/2U 1/22222.75
10 3/4V
11V 1/223
11 1/4W25
11 1/2W 1/224
11 3/4X
12X 1/22527.5
12 1/4Y
12 1/2Z2628.75
12 3/4Z 1/2
13 1/4Z1
13 1/2
13 3/4Z2
14 1/4
14 1/2Z4
14 3/4
15 1/4
15 1/2
15 3/4


To Convert...Into...Multiply By...


Wire Guage Acceptable WeightStretch-Causing Weight
26 dead soft350g400g
26 soft450g500g
26 half hard600g650g
26 hard900g1000g
24 dead soft1250g1500g
24 half hard1700g2000g
22 soft4000gover 4000g


Stone SizeHole Diameter (mm)Wire Guage #Wrap Times
smallless 0.5261
small0.5 ~ 0.8262 ~ 3
medium0.8 ~ 1241
medium1.1 ~ 1.5242 ~ 3
medium ~ big1.6 ~ 1.8221
medium ~ big1.9 ~ 2.5222 ~ 3
bigover 2.5201 ~ 2

There are obviously so many other charts you'd probably need, but I find that these are the ones I need the most! Feel free to contribute!